Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B blood tests detect viral proteins (antigens), the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, or detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection, was exposed to HBV in the past, or has immunity as a result of vaccination.
For details on the various tests, see a Medical Laboratory ScientistðŸ”¬
Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and, sometimes, enlargement of the liver. It has various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.
HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Mothers who are infected can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.
Though a potentially serious infection, acute HBV infection usually resolves on its own in most adults. Infants and children tend to develop a chronic infection more often than adults. Approximately 90% of infants infected with HBV will develop a chronic condition. For children between the ages of one and five, the risk of developing chronic hepatitis drops to between 25% and 50%. Over the age of five, less than 5% of HBV infections become chronic.
The vast majority of those with chronic infections will have no symptoms. For acute infections, the symptoms (when present) are very similar to those of other types of acute hepatitis, although no symptoms occur in over half of those with acut
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